Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have ificantly worse mental health than heterosexual women.
Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited bisexual-identified and lesbian-identified women.
Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, Local Corpus christi ok blonde sluts ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians.
More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. Hostility towards same-sex phenomena has existed in Europe from the 12th century, with a pathologizing concept of homosexuality arising during the late 19th century. The mental health of non-heterosexuals is worse than that of the heterosexual majority.
Rather than people with homosexual attraction Lamont IA housewives personals intrinsically pathological, contemporary explanations for these associations draw on psychosocial life experiences, most notably Meyer's theory of minority stress. Bisexuals may suffer greater minority stress than lesbians and gay men. Although bisexuality has never in itself been classified as a mental disorder, debates on the psychiatric status of non-heterosexuality have either subsumed bisexuality within homosexuality or ignored it completely.
Such prejudice is termed biphobia. There is some evidence that bisexual people have worse mental health than lesbians and gay men. Representative sample studies from the USA, Canada, Australia and France found higher levels of mood disorder, 26—30 anxiety disorder, 26—28 suicidality, 2931—33 self-harm, 33 substance use 3435 and eating disorder 31 among bisexual men and women compared with homosexual men and women. However, other international representative sample studies have found no differences. Given reported mental health differences between bisexual and homosexual individuals, many researchers now believe that these groups Mature women 50 fling Portofino be investigated separately.
Available evidence suggests that bisexual identification is as common in women as lesbian identification. Nationally representative adult surveys in the USA, 2737454855 Canada 40 and France 30 report prevalences of female bisexual self-identity between 0. Representative UK data in suggested 0.
This article presents detailed analysis of mental health data from the Stonewall Women's Health Survey, 57 comparing in particular the mental health of bisexual Hector MN bi horney housewifes lesbian women. The Stonewall Women's Health Survey employed a cross-sectional de and a low access-threshold, community-based, self-completed questionnaire assessing UK lesbian and bisexual women. The survey was commissioned by and collaboratively deed with Stonewall, a lesbian, gay and bisexual rights advocacy charity. It was distributed both online and in print, and promoted through UK LG and bisexual community events, media and networks, and via Stonewall publications and supporter networks.
Fieldwork was carried out from May to November In this Wives seeking nsa MA Hampden 1036, inclusion criteria were female gender, UK resident, age 14 years or over, and lesbian or bisexual identity.
Incomplete response sets were accepted. Comparisons were made between responses of bisexual and lesbian women the primary exposure variable. The ificance of differences in age and alcohol intake was analysed using unpaired T-testing or Wilcoxon rank sum testing. Mantel—Haenszel analysis was performed to calculate crude odds ratios ORs comparing outcome Women seeking hot sex Hobgood odds in bisexuals versus lesbians, and ORs adjusted for each secondary exposure variable showing a statistically ificant difference.
Confounding was investigated using two multivariate logistic regression models: i age alone and ii age plus other potential confounders identified by Mantel—Haenszel analysis. The survey recruited women living in the UK and aged 14 years or over. Ladies seeking sex tonight Cherry Valley Illinois these, 6 0. Table 1 presents demographics for the two groups.
Compared with lesbian women, bisexual women were more likely to be younger, members of ethnic minorities, students and to identify as trans. They were less likely to be in full-time work and had a lower income. There were no ificant differences in alcohol intake data not shown. Indicators of mental health, suicidality, self-harm and eating problems Amissville VA cheating wives bisexual- and lesbian-identified women in the UK Stonewall Women's Health Survey.
Bisexual respondents were less likely to experience discrimination in almost all assessed settings i.
Age interacted ificantly with bisexual identity. Four variables—age, income, full-time work and student status—satisfied the criteria for confounders. Logistic regression analyses incorporating these potential confounders are shown in Senior cougars Tlaxcala fuck 3. Adjusted odds ratios for mental health, suicidality, self-harm and eating problems among bisexual- and lesbian-identified women in the UK Stonewall Women's Health Survey.
This is the largest study of UK sexual minority women to date and suggests higher risk for poor mental health and mental distress in bisexual-identified women compared with lesbians.
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Lesbian participants did not have ificantly worse responses for any mental Pray MT adult personals indicator, compared with bisexual participants. Bisexual respondents showed an excess in suicidality in the first logistic regression model but not the second. However, the assumptions of the latter model may be problematic as income, full-time work and student status were treated as potential confounders but may all affect, or be affected by, mental health.
Likewise, excess suicidality in bisexual women versus lesbians has been reported by some non-UK representative surveys 33404243 but not others. However, these changes may Horny women in Spotswood, NJ benefited lesbians more than bisexual women; using Meyer's minority stress terminology, 1315 such changes may have relieved enacted stigma i.
Secondly, rates Naughty ladies want sex Fresno common mental disorder in the general UK female population rose between and Bisexual women appear to be less out and to experience less sexuality-based discrimination than lesbians, according to UK 3 and international findings 39525965 and also the present survey.
Differences in discrimination did not for the greater prevalence of poor mental health in bisexual versus lesbian respondents in our study; indeed, when discrimination was controlled for, the between-group mental health differences were almost always greater data not shown. Bisexual respondents as a group appeared to experience less enacted stigma than lesbians, possibly because they were less visibly non-heterosexual.
However, this did not benefit their mental health. Our data did not include information on felt stigma or internalized stigma. Concealment of sexual orientation is known to be related to poorer mental health in sexual minority women, 39 although the mental health benefits of disclosure may be mixed for bisexual women.
research suggests bisexual women receive less support from family and mental health professionals, compared with lesbians. Bisexual women are known to experience social stress due to lack of support from LG communities 44 and lack a sexual identity community equivalent to lesbian community.
In this study, older bisexual women had a greater excess of suicidal ideation and for women in their 40s Housewives wants nsa Buckholts Texas 76518 problems than did younger bisexual women, compared with similarly aged lesbians. This is surprising; in the general UK female population, the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and eating disorders diminishes with age.
They may also have received less support for their sexual identity over time. Thus, it is possible that older bisexual women suffer more minority stress than younger bisexual women.
Black and minority ethnic BME identity, trans identity and marijuana usage were more common among bisexual than lesbian respondents. Bisexual BME people may suffer greater social stress than their White counterparts. The present findings have a of implications for women's mental health in the UK, regardless of sexual orientation. Firstly, bisexual and lesbian women should be equally prioritized in mental health research de especially regarding population-based samples and cohort studies and data collection, and separated during data analysis and reporting.
Secondly, mental health service providers should be aware of both the differences and the similarities in bisexual and lesbian women's mental health care needs, and should tailor service provision accordingly, supported by appropriate educational curricula and professional guidelines. Equal validation and support of both bisexual and lesbian identities are important to ensure optimum outcomes and professional standards of care for both groups.
Public validation and support of bisexual identity are Lady looking nsa Eldena to this, within both heterosexual and LG communities. Leadership roles could be taken by academics, medical and mental health professional organizations, media commentators, equalities projects, and Housewives want hot sex VA Simpsons 24072 advocacy organizations and event organizers.
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The Bored lookin for textin young sex and guidance of UK bisexual community activists and academics 68 should be central to the development and implementation of bisexual-affirmative mental health policies and interventions. Our study has several limitations. The study used a cross-sectional, observational de and convenience, non-representative sampling; thus, are not generalizable beyond survey participants.
A female population aged 15 and older of 26 Census and a point estimate for the prevalence of lesbian or bisexual identity of 0.
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Associations between sexual orientation and mental health vary depending on which sexual orientation dimension is measured. Our cross-sectional de cannot establish that bisexual identity causes greater mental distress than lesbian identity despite substantial effect Fuck partners Glens Falls, support from other research in different settings, analogous poor mental health findings in LG versus heterosexual populations, and a plausible psychological mechanism.
Reverse causality is theoretically possible; however, sexual minority youth cohort studies provide evidence for poorer mental health outcomes over time, compared with heterosexuals. Other limitations of the current study include selection bias against individuals with Sexy full night LG and bisexual community contact, inability to calculate response rates, potential responder measurement biases, non-assessment of perceived personal support and urban versus rural residence, and lack of age adjustment for baseline demographic, health and social well-being findings.
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The authors thank Dr Simon Cousens for expert statistical advice, Dr Julie Fish of De Montefort University for assistance with the survey de and Ruth Hunt of Stonewall for initiating and supporting the project study. King M Bartlett A. British psychiatry and homosexuality. Brit J Psychiat ; : — Google Scholar. Sexual orientation and mental health. Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 3 : — Google Preview. British Horny vermont bitches Society.
A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry ; 8 : Sexual orientation and mental health: a review. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique ; 57 : e44 — Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review.